Ocean Energy Definition
The Tethys database provides access to scientific literature and general information on the potential environmental impacts of ocean energy.  Indonesia, as a three-quarters oceanic archipelago country, has 49 GW of recognized potential ocean energy and 727 GW of theoretical potential ocean energy.  Ocean energy, also known as marine and hydrokinetic energy or marine renewable energy, is a renewable energy source harnessed from the natural movement of water, including waves, tides, and river and ocean currents. Ocean energy can also be harnessed from temperature differences in the water through a process known as converting thermal energy into the ocean. The oceans have an enormous amount of energy and are close to much, if not most, concentrated populations. Ocean energy has the potential to provide a significant amount of new renewable energy worldwide.  Energy from moving bodies of water – a popular form of hydropower generation. Tidal energy production consists of three main forms, namely tidal energy, tidal energy and dynamic tidal energy. There has been little progress in assessing Australia`s thermal energy resources, partly due to increased prospects for alternative renewable energy sources (CME, 2007). From 1975 to 1985, extensive research was conducted, which yielded various results on the economic viability of PRO and RED plants.
It is important to note that small studies on salinity production are underway in other countries such as Japan, Israel, and the United States. In Europe, research is concentrated in Norway and the Netherlands, with small pilots being tested in both locations. The energy of the salinity gradient is the energy available from the difference in salt concentration between fresh and salt water. This energy source is not easy to understand because it does not occur directly in nature in the form of heat, waterfalls, wind, waves or radiation.  Australia`s tidal resource assessment is limited to kinetic tidal energy on the Australian continental shelf. Tidal currents on the plateau are minimal. In addition, significant transmission losses for coastal tidal energy converters would be expected. The continental shelf for this assessment is defined as water depths below 300 m. Learn more about the benefits of ocean energy and visit the Ocean Energy STEM Portal to learn more about how you can advance the ocean energy industry. The best-equipped jurisdictions are Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory. Western Australia has offshore sites where the average tidal power (kinetic) in water depths less than or equal to 50 m exceeds 6.1 kW per square metre (KW/m2) and provides a total kinetic energy of over 195 GJ/m2 per year. As technologies develop, scientists and experts are looking for ways to harness more energy from the waves and the ocean.
King Island`s reputation as a renewable energy hotspot is bolstered by the announcement of $4 million for a new $12.3 million wave energy demonstration project. Salinity gradient energy resulting from different salt concentrations when they occur when a river flows into an ocean. Demonstration projects use “delayed pressure osmosis,” in which fresh water flows through a membrane to increase pressure in a saltwater tank. and “reverse electrodialysis” with salt ions circulating in alternating salt and freshwater tanks. At a simplified level, wave energy technology can be located near shore and offshore. Wave energy converters can also be designed to operate in specific water depth conditions: deep sea, intermediate water or shallow water. The basic design of the device depends on the location of the device and the intended resource properties. Strong ocean currents are produced by a combination of temperature, wind, salinity, bathymetry and rotation of the Earth. The sun acts as the main driving force, causing winds and temperature differences. Since there are only small fluctuations in flow velocity and flow location with no change in direction, ocean currents can be suitable locations for the use of energy harvesting equipment such as turbines.
Figure 2. Example of an oscillating water column, which is a kind of wave energy converter, and an ETM power plant. General environmental concerns related to ocean energy development include: Ocean energy refers to all forms of renewable energy extracted from the sea. There are three main types of marine technologies: wave, tidal and oceanic. Other concepts of renewable marine resources, such as hydrothermal vents, as well as the hybridization of the above systems are also pursued. With the emergence of various innovative concepts and the reported success of several applications, the marine renewable energy sector, especially the field of tidal and wave energy conversion technology, has attracted a lot of attention worldwide. Many technologies are also being researched for energy purposes other than electricity generation, for example: drinking water production by desalination, compressed air supply for aquaculture and hydrogen production by electrolysis. Ocean energy or ocean energy (sometimes called ocean energy, ocean energy or marine and hydrokinetic energy) refers to the energy carried by waves, tides, salinity and ocean temperature differences. The movement of water in the world`s oceans creates an enormous reserve of kinetic energy, or energy in motion. Some of this energy can be used to produce electricity for households, transport and industry. Questions about renewable energy? Stay up to date here on Eco-Centric, your guide to all things energy, or join us on Just Energy Facebook and Twitter. The wave energy sector is taking an important step in the development of the industry, with positive steps taken towards commercial viability.
More advanced device designers are now moving beyond single-unit demonstration devices to network development and multi-megawatt projects.  Support for major public services is now manifested through partnerships in the development process, allowing for new investment and, in some cases, international cooperation. CELM technologies and ocean currents are currently small in size and have had limited use. One of the three active OTEC power plants in the world is located in Hawaii; However, the actors developing this technology are mainly research institutes and universities and not industry, as the profitability of this technology is uncertain. Tidal kites could use energy from ocean currents. However, developers plan limited commercial deployments to harvest energy from tidal currents rather than ocean currents, in part because ocean currents are further offshore, making deployment difficult. Ocean energy resources are geographically diverse and, given the fact that more than 50% of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of the coast, are well located to power communities. These resources are also highly predictable, making them a promising contribution to a stable and reliable clean energy system. For example, the daily and seasonal cycles of ocean energy resources make it an excellent complement to other renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. With several ocean energy technologies now powering coastal and island communities, some key questions for policymakers are: Tidal energy comes in two forms, both of which produce electricity: Previous studies of Australia`s wave climate have mainly focused on the energy-rich southwest, south and southeast edges of the continent. however, there has been no comprehensive national screening assessment available to the Australian public.
Wave energy resources. The assessment of wave energy resources presented here is based on wave data obtained by the Bureau of Meteorology at 6-hour intervals over eleven years from 24,090 sites evenly distributed throughout the Australian continental shelf (Hasselmann et al., 1988). Thermal energy due to the temperature gradient between the sea surface and deep water can be used with various ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) processes. Tidal energy is the energy generated by rising seawater during the rise and fall of tides. Tidal energy is a renewable energy source. Ocean energy is the mechanical energy obtained from the movements of tides, waves or thermal gradients in the oceans and used for the production of electricity, which are energy conversion technologies. DTPDynamic Tidal Power (DTP) is one of the latest proposals to harness the power of the tides. With DTP, huge dams (as long as 50 kilometers (31 miles)) would stretch directly from the shore to the ocean.
In addition to equipment testing, EMEC also offers a wide range of consultancy and research services and works closely with Marine Scotland to streamline the approval process for ocean energy developers.