Which Concept Means That the Nurse Is Responsible Professionally and Legally
It is important to think of accountability as a process of supporting others who want to be accountable for the work they do. Nurses in leadership positions, whether formal (e.g., nurse manager) or informal (e.g., nurse in charge or staff member), should reflect on their reflections on accountability in order to fully understand their own thoughts on the topic. Reflection is an important first step, as leaders set the tone for the work environment and a better understanding of themselves can influence thinking and action for the future (Cox & Beeson, 2018). Here are some questions to ask: Golanowski, Beaudry, Kurz, Laffey and Hook (2007) explain shared governance as a decision-making model with four main concepts: The above nine provisions have been implemented to help nurses make ethical decisions throughout their practice. Unfortunately, nurses are often unable to make complex ethical decisions based solely on the four principles and nine provisions. In these cases, it is important to consult the ethics committee before making any important decisions. Often, other resources are needed to make important ethical decisions. The quality measures available on the Hospital Compare website provide the health system and nurses with important data that helps them be more competitive with other health systems and thus further improve the quality of care. Nurses need to be aware that their patients often enter the health care system with an increased knowledge of health care in general and an awareness of the level of quality of the organization. Patients can get an idea of what to expect from nurses when they begin care, and nurses must be willing to work collaboratively with patients. Like any other business, healthcare organizations and their employees are accountable to their patients and needs. Nurses must be accountable to themselves, or they risk being accountable to their colleagues and patients.
Nurses work very long hours and often work well beyond a 12-hour shift to complete care, documentation and reporting to the accommodating nurse. A nurse may refuse to work a 13- or 14-hour shift, especially if the compensation does not cover overtime in the department. Miller (2012) explains the importance of strengthening personal responsibility in situations where a nurse may complain or blame about long hours or other problems beyond her control. Personal responsibility begins by looking inward rather than pointing fingers. Miller (2012) suggests asking two important questions: for a common governance model to produce positive outcomes, nurses and managers must accept that nurses must have a say in decisions that affect their practice and health care delivery. Stephanie Reid has been writing professionally since 2007, with work published in the Virginia Bar Association`s Family Law Quarterly and the Whittier Journal of Child and Family Advocacy. She holds a Juris Doctor from Regent University and a Bachelor of Arts in French and Child Development from Florida State University. Reid was admitted to the bars of Delaware and Maryland. Non-malevolence means doing no harm. This is the best known of the most important principles of nursing ethics. More specifically, it is the selection of interventions and care that cause the least harm to achieve a beneficial outcome that the nurse has a duty to advocate for her patients.
It must work to promote legal rights, the protection of privacy and the right of the patient to participate or not in medical research. As a lawyer, the nurse must ensure that she meets all government qualification and licensing requirements before participating in nursing activities and be vigilant of other colleagues with disabilities. Nurses have a professional duty at all times to take personal responsibility for their actions and are responsible for the caregiver`s judgment and actions or inaction. This responsibility extends to situations where the nurse delegates tasks to a colleague or subordinate. Accountability is a general concept that is closely related to other concepts. It will be important to understand the differences between the following concepts discussed in this chapter: Currently, the Nurse`s Code of Ethics contains 9 main provisions: It is important that caregivers support the patient in their medical wishes and ensure that the medical team remembers these wishes. Sometimes nurses must continue to advocate for a patient, even if wishes are verbalized because the medical team may not agree with those wishes. Patients have the right to safe, quality care. Nurses are accountable to their patients by fulfilling their obligations set out in the scope, standards of practice and code of ethics. As mentioned earlier, these two foundational documents illustrate the requirement of all registered nurses to provide exemplary care to those in need of health care.
Caregivers need to be aware of the high risk of alcohol and illicit substance dependence for themselves. If nurses observe impaired practices or unsafe patient care by a colleague and believe misconduct (e.g., medication diversion), nurses should be prepared to report this unethical behaviour. Reporting such behaviour to the authorities is called whistleblowing. Whistleblowing is defined as “the disclosure of illegal, immoral or illegitimate practices under the control of their employers by current or former members of the organization to individuals or organizations that may be able to take action” (Near & Miceli, 1985, p. 4). Protecting patients from harm is one of the guiding principles of the nursing profession. Nurses and their patients must ensure that they pay attention to and report altered practices. More information on whistleblowing is available on the ANA website. Transferring responsibility from one nurse to another is like a silent contract.
For example, in acute care, if a nurse receives a report from the departing nurse, responsibility is transferred from one person to another. The oncoming nurse is responsible for the behaviour and outcomes of a group of patients throughout the shift. Whenever a nurse establishes a professional relationship with a patient (depending on role or attitude), there is a binding agreement where the nurse is required by law (see the Nursing Practice Act below) to provide care based on the patient`s needs and desires. One of the characteristics of a profession is service to society. Consumers have the right to safe, quality care, and nurses are held accountable for meeting society`s health needs. In order to meet these needs and requirements, nurses are required to keep abreast of current literature, training, maintain their skills and much more. Under the NPA and the ANA`s Social Policy Statement on Care, nurses are legally responsible for providing professional care that meets the required areas and standards of practice. The Code of Ethics (ANA, 2015a) sets out the values and duties of the nurse. Paragraph 4 emphasizes accountability and responsibility and states: “The nurse has the authority, accountability and responsibility for the practice of nursing; makes decisions; and takes measures consistent with the obligation to promote health and provide optimal care” (ANA, 2015a, p. 59). The ethical obligation of the nurse is to protect herself and the public and to be responsible.
Improved morale, job satisfaction and empowerment make nurses happier and more fulfilling in their daily work. Patients may feel that their caregivers (nurses and staff) are becoming happier, which can translate into feelings of care and a satisfied patient experience. Nurses have an ethical duty to disseminate knowledge and information about health, wellness and disease prevention. Nurses should promote the profession by participating in community programs and civil society activities related to health care. Nurses have a duty to keep abreast of national and global health issues, epidemics, epidemics and infectious diseases. A nurse must also stay informed about vaccines, world hunger, pollution, lack of access to health care, human rights violations and the equitable distribution of health care services. These principles are ideally what every caregiver should keep in mind in their daily nursing practice. Although ethical principles are sometimes confusing and often taught briefly during nursing, they should be constants in nursing practice in order to provide the best, safest and most humane care to all patients. When delegating, caregivers should consider the following: The principle of non-malignancy ensures patient and community safety in all health care settings. Nurses are also responsible for reporting treatment options that cause significant harm to a patient, including suicidal or suicidal thoughts.
The ANA Code of Ethics for Care was revised in 2015 to include 9 provisions and now includes interpretive statements that can provide more specific guidance for nursing practice. Justice is that there should be an element of fairness in all medical and nursing decisions and care. Nurses must care for all patients with the same level of equity, regardless of financial ability, race, religion, gender or sexual orientation. The Nursing Social Policy Statement describes the social responsibility, accountability and contribution of nursing to health care (ANA, 2015b). The nursing profession is responsible for the quality and ethics of care in society.